Windows Vs Ubuntu
Having resources is great! but does those resources make any sense if they don’t deliver optimum results? Efficient management of resources should be done to gain desired results. Similar logic can be applied to computers and mobile devices, they are loaded with application software’s and hardware to handle GB’s of information/data. These applications and hardware are managed by a program which is termed as “operating system”. OS works as an interface between computer hardware and the end-user, it is a communicator which helps the user to communicate with the computer.
Whenever people are asked about the operating system, the most common answer is Windows. If the person is not in love with his/her kidney iOS can be one more answer. But if you come across a tech-nerd, Linux and another open-source operating system would come up as an answer, which may sound like an alien language for a common person or some blabbering.
From the past 2 decades, there has always been a discussion in the tech world that “Which is the better OS?” and in this discussion Windows vs Ubuntu is always a hot topic.
I’ll try and put up some background to the topic and some supporting points for better understanding…
“Operating systems are like underwear- nobody really wants to look at them” – Bill Joy.
“We can never make a 32-bit operating system” – Bill Gates.
“Good operating systems are a lot like good wine. New is not necessarily good… The longer you’ve been testing it, the longer you’ve been applying it in applications, the better it gets” – Ed Zander.
STATISTICS – What Numbers have to Say?
- Widely used computer operating system in the world is Microsoft’s “Windows”, which accounts for around 72.86% share of the desktop, tablet, and console OS market in February 2020. Apple’s macOS and iOS are ranked second in the list of most widely used operating systems, with the latter being the standard installation on all iPad devices. Linux OS versions serve as the primary option for users who prefer open-source software and intend to avoid the influence of major OS developers. Source – Statista.
- Operating System Market Share in India – May 2020; Android has a market share of 67.92%, Windows stands at 23.95%, iOS has 2.78%, OS X is close to iOs with 2.31%, KaiOS with 1.1% and Linux has a market share of 0.9% – Source – Statcounter.
- As of 2019, Android operating system held a share of about 91% of the mobile OS market in India. – Source – Statista.
DESCRIPTION – Let’s take a Deep Dive
What is an operating system and how this term came into existence?
A program that manages all the other application programs in a computer is called an “Operating System”
Operating systems development was done to manage tape storage and its inception can be traced back in the 1950s. Implementation of OS was done General Motors Research Lab in the early 1950s for their IBM 701. It was in the mid-1960s, that operating systems came on disks; also the first-ever version of Unix OS was developed. Microsoft, the tech giant now had built its fist OS named DOS 1981 and it was initially purchased from a Seattle company, the software purchased was 86-DOS software. Windows OS which is very popular in the 21st century first came into existence in 1985 which had a GUI which was created for a better experience and paired with MS-DOS.
How does OS work?
Applications in the computer make a request to the OS with the use of APIs and the users who are running the application can interact with the OS through a graphical user interface (example: Windows, iOS, Android) or a command line (example: Linux). This interaction was done using keyboard and mouse in the early days but now devices can be operated via touch so it is an addition to the interaction method.
The primary purpose of developing an OS is that the OS should meet some specific needs of the devices it runs on and its features are developed to serve the same purpose.
Example: Windows desktop OS performs well on large monitors; it will be confined on a mobile phone.
Operating Systems are not only limited to computers and personal devices, they are everywhere viz. Cars, aeroplanes, cameras, digital TVs, ATMs, traffic lights, elevators, GPS navigation systems use Embedded OS. Network operating system support devices are connected to a local area network and if the task has any time constraints RTOS are used.
Types of Operating system
- Mobile OS
- Real-Time OS
- Batch Operating System
- Multitasking/Time-Sharing OS
- Distributed OS
- Network OS
Mobile OS is used in smartphones, tablets, smartwatches and other wearable devices. Android and iOS are very famous mobile OS, BlackBerry, Web and watchOS are some other mobile OS.
It is intended to cater real-time application that process data as it comes in and instantly without buffer delay. Examples: Military Software Systems, Space Software Systems, etc.
Batch Operating System
To speed the lengthy and time-consuming process on computers batch OS is used, here jobs are batched together which had a similar type of needs. These grouped jobs are run as a group. There is no direct interaction of the user with the computer in a type of OS, an offline device like a punch card is used where the user prepares their job and this card is then submitted to the computer operator.
Multi-Tasking/Time-sharing Operating systems
The time-sharing operating system allows multiple users to use a single computer system at the same time. These users are located at different terminals, also called a shell. The time-sharing concept is used in this operating system, CPU is shared among multiple users via processing time.
Distributed Operating System
Distributed systems use a lot of processors located in different machines to provide their users with very fast computation.
Network Operating System
A server is required for network operating system. It provides the capability to manage data, user, groups, security, application, and other networking functions.
Features of Operating System
- Execution of program
- Memory management
- Input-output operation handling
- Managing system files
- Detection and handling errors
- Allocation of resources
- Provide protection to user data by providing supervisor mode and guest access mode
- Protection of information and resources
Functions of an Operating System
- Process management
- Memory management
- File management
- Device Management
- I/O System Management
- Secondary-Storage Management
- Command interpretation
- Job accounting:
- Communication management
Windows Vs Ubuntu
Windows operating system was created by Microsoft in 1985. There have been many versions of Windows catering the changing requirement of users. The company has always come up with better user interface and performance with every version, the latest version which was released in 2015 is Windows 10 and was launched to target personal computing. Preceding versions are – Windows 8 (released in 2012), Windows 7 (released in 2009), and Windows Vista (released in 2007). Windows is the most popular OS in the world, most of the new PCs come pre-loaded with it.
Hardware requirement for Windows:
- CPU: 1 GHz
- RAM: 1 GB (or more for the 32-bit version), 2 GB (or more for 64-bit version)
- GPU: 800 x 600 pixels output resolution with a colour depth of 32 bits
- Disk Space: 32 GB
Some of the highlights of Windows 10 are:
- Windows 10 is termed to be the best update of the Windows series.
- Best Operating system for gamers.
- UI interface is far better than its previous versions.
- Problems in Windows 8.1 are resolved, with attractive UI and feel in Windows 10.
- Windows mobile can be synced with the Windows 10 operating system on your PC very easily.
- Microsoft’s personal productivity assistant Cortana which is a visual personal assistant helps the user to save time and focus attention on what matters the most.
- Microsoft edge released for Windows 10 and Xbox One is a web browser developed by Microsoft.
- Windows 10 snap assist feature enables the user to utilize the space on his or her screen efficiently.
Ubuntu is a distribution of Linux and open-source software which was developed in October 2004, by Canonical. It is a very reliable OS and best suited for development purpose. Its latest release is Ubuntu 18.10, there are other distributions like Fedora, Linux Mint, Debian, xUbuntu and KUbuntu. Ubuntu is the most popular distribution of Linux and comes with three official editions:
- Ubuntu Desktop – for the personal computer
- Ubuntu Server – for making the servers
- Ubuntu Core for the IoT and Robots.
Hardware requirement for Ubuntu:
- CPU: 2 GHz dual-core processor
- RAM: 2 GB
- GPU: 1024 x 768 screen resolution
- Disk Space: 25 GB
Some key features of Ubuntu are given below:
- Open-source operating system and free of cost
- Ubuntu is having the better User Interface as compared to other distributions of Linux.
- Ubuntu is very safe and secure from a security point of view.
- Ubuntu is completely customizable.
- User can run Ubuntu by simply plugging in a pen drive to the user PC, installation is not required.
- Ubuntu has a centralized software repository which allows us to download all the required software.
- Ubuntu is best for development purpose and programming.
- It has both command-line interfaces as well as GUI interface, Ubuntu comes with default support for Bash in its command line.
|Basis Comparison||Ubuntu||Windows 10|
|Developer||Canonical, in October 2004||Microsoft, first windows OS was developed in 1985. Later updated versions came in the market.|
|OS family||Linux||Windows NT|
|Source Model||Open Source||Licensed|
|Release date||20 October 2004||15 July 2015|
|Kernel type||Monolithic – single or block of the program, creates a distinct communication layer between hardware and software.||Hybrid|
|Userland||GNU||Windows NT, .NET|
|Default User Interface||GNOME, Ubuntu Unity||Windows Shell|
|Cost||Open Source and is available free of cost||Licensed version need to be purchased.|
|Viruses||Designed in such a way that the virus doesn’t reside in the system.||Virus attack is common. Anti-virus needs to be purchased.|
|Updates||Unintrusive system updates and updates are very easily available and easy to install.||Intrusive system updates. Every time you need to update Java.|
|Programming||The programming part is very easy and customizable.||Comfortable but not much compatible.|
|Entertainment||Not built for entertainment, but applications that run on Linux platform can be installed.||Applications are available that run on windows platform and allows the user to watch movies, handle media (photos) and games.|
|MS Office Work||LibreOffice 3 can be used to perform MS Office Work.||MS Office works great on windows platform.|
|Gaming||Few games are supported on this platform.||User can enjoy a wide range of games.|
|Adobe and Photoshop support||Not supported||Excellent support|
|Performance(RAM and Core)||Optimum utilization||Satisfactory|
|Security||Antivirus and Firewall are not needed.||Antivirus and Firewall is a must.|
|Learning||At initial stage, user may find it difficult but once understood it has a lot to explore.||Easy to learn and user friendly. Best for beginners.|
Windows and Ubuntu, both are fantastic operating systems having their unique pros and cons. It is up to the user and the requirements which are to be catered, one can choose among the options available. Windows is the most popular OS and comes pre-loaded with new PCs and laptops available in the market, it has always been the default operating system of choice, but as discussed above there are ample of reasons one could try Ubuntu.
Generally, programmers and developer prefer Ubuntu because it’s very secure, fast for programming and robust. While normal users who mostly use MS office, play games and use Photoshop prefer Windows OS. Overall we can say both the operating systems are well built catering the customer needs in their own ways.
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Author – Snehal Namade